Anatomically, the human skull is studied in different views, called normas. Basically , the same same skull is looked at from different sides, frontally, laterally ,posteriorly, superiorly and inferiorly. The reason for different views is that the skull is made of a large number of separate bones.
The norma verticalis is that view of the skull in which the cranial cap or cranial vault from above. Verticals literally means ‘superior aspect’.
This is the cranial vault :
The cranial vault consists of the following bones :
- The Unpaired Frontal Bone
- The Paired Parietal Bones
- Part of the Unpaired Occipital Bone
Each of these bones is joined to each other at sutures. The bones can be thought of as a jigsaw puzzle whose pieces are fitting in together at various points.
The sutures present in the norma verticalis are:
- The unpaired frontal bone joins with the two paired parietal bones at the coronal suture.
- The two parietal bones join with each other at the sagittal suture.
- The two parietal bones join with the occipital bone at the lambdoid suture.
There are two points in the skull called as the bregma and the lambda .
- The bregma is the meeting point of the coronal and sagittal sutures.
- The lambda is the meeting point of the sagittal and lambdoid sutures.
The foramen :
Foramen (Plural – Foramina) are the openings in the skull through which structures like nerves, arteries and veins pass in and out of it.
The only foramina present in this view are the paired posterior parietal foramina that are present just lateral to the sagittal suture.
So, in its entirety , the norma verticalis looks like this:
To summarize, the norma verticalis consists of:
- 3 bones
- 3 sutures
- 2 junctions or meeting points
- 2 foramina
Snell’s Clinical Neuroanatomy
I do not own any images , except for the hand drawn diagrams.